We finally published our first article on deep learning (a form of artificial intelligence, AI) in orthopedics! We got standard off-the-shelf neural networks to perform equally well as senior orthopedic surgeons for identifying fractures. This was under the premise that both the network and the surgeons reviewed the same down-scaled images. Nevertheless, this was better than we expected and verifies my belief that deep learning is suitable for analyzing orthopedic radiographs. Continue reading
In previous posts we’ve looked into the basic structure of the torch-dataframe package. In this post we’ll go through the [mnist example][mnist ex] that shows how to best integrate the dataframe with [torchnet](https://github.com/torchnet/torchnet). Continue reading
In my previous two posts I covered the most basic data manipulation that you may need. In this post I’ll try to give a quick introduction to some of the sampling methods that we can use in our machine learning projects. Continue reading
In my [previous post][intro post] we took a look at some of the basic functionality. In this post I’ll try to show how to manipulate your dataframe. Note though, the [torch-dataframe][tdf github] is not about data munging, there are far more powerful tools in other languages for this. The aim of the modifications is to do simple tasks without being forced to switch to a different language. Continue reading
Handling [tabular data](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Table_(information)) is generally at the heart of most research projects. As I started exploring [Torch](http://torch.ch/) that uses the [Lua](https://www.lua.org/) language for [deep learning](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deep_learning) I was surprised that there was no package that would correspond to the functionality available in R’s [data.frame](https://stat.ethz.ch/R-manual/R-devel/library/base/html/data.frame.html). After some searching I found Alex Mili’s [torch-dataframe](https://github.com/AlexMili/torch-dataframe) package that I decided to update to my needs. We have during the past few months been developing the package and it has now made it onto the Torch [cheat sheet](https://github.com/torch/torch7/wiki/Cheatsheet#data-formats) (partly the reason for the posting scarcity lately). This series of posts provide a short introduction to the package (version 1.5) and examples of how to implement basic networks in Torch. Continue reading
One of the successful insights to training neural networks has been the rectified linear unit, or short the ReLU, as a fast alternative to the traditional activation functions such as the sigmoid or the tanh. One of the major advantages of the simle ReLu is that it does not saturate at the upper end, thus the network is able to distinguish a poor answer from a really poor answer and correct accordingly.
A modification to the ReLU, the Leaky ReLU, that would not saturate in the opposite direction has been tested but did not help. Interestingly in a recent paper by the Microsoft© deep learning team, He et al. revisited the subject and introduced a Parametric ReLU, the PReLU, achieving superhuman performance on the imagenet. The PReLU learns the parameter α (alpha) and adjusts it through basic gradient descent.
In this tutorial I will benchmark a few different implementations of the ReLU and PReLU together with Theano. The benchmark test will be on the MNIST database, mostly for convenience. Continue reading